Hello! My name is Slava Mikhalkin, I am a Project Owner of Crowdsale platform at Platinum, the company that knows how to start any ICO or STO in 2019.
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I am also happy to be a part of the UBAI, the first educational institution providing the most effective online education on blockchain! We can teach you how to do ICO/STO in 2019. Today I want to tell you how to sell and transfer cryptocurrencies.
In finance, an exchange is a forum or platform for trading commodities, derivatives, securities or other financial instruments. The principle concern of an exchange is to allow trading between parties to take place in a fair and legally compliant manner, as well as to ensure that pricing information for any instrument traded on the exchange is reliable and coherently delivered to exchange participants. In the cryptocurrency space exchanges are online platforms that allow users to trade cryptocurrencies or digital currencies for fiat money or other cryptocurrencies. They can be centralized exchanges such a Binance, or decentralized exchanges such as IDEX. Most cryptocurrency exchanges allow users to trade different crypto assets with BTC or ETH after having already exchanged fiat currency for one of those cryptocurrencies. Coinbase and Kraken are the main avenue for fiat money to enter into the cryptocurrency ecosystem.
Function and History
Crypto exchanges can be market-makers that take bid/ask spreads as a commission on the transaction for facilitating the trade, or more often charge a small percentage fee for operating the forum in which the trade was made. Most crypto exchanges operate outside of Western countries, enabling them to avoid stringent financial regulations and the potential for costly and lengthy legal proceedings. These entities will often maintain bank accounts in multiple jurisdictions, allowing the exchange to accept fiat currency and process transactions from customers all over the globe.
The concept of a digital asset exchange has been around since the late 2000s and the following initial attempts at running digital asset exchanges foreshadows the trouble involved in attempting to disrupt the operation of the fiat currency baking system. The trading of digital or electronic assets predate Bitcoin’s creation by several years, with the first electronic trading entities running afoul of the Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC) in late 2004. Companies such as Goldex, SydneyGoldSales, and Ozzigold, shut down voluntarily after ASIC found that they were operating without an Australian Financial Services License. E-Gold, which exchanged fiat USD for grams of precious metals in digital form, was possibly the first digital currency exchange as we know it, allowing users to make instant transfers to the accounts of other E-Gold members. At its peak in 2006 E-Gold processed $2 billion worth of transactions and boasted a user base of over 5 million people.
Here we will give a brief overview of the features and operational history of the more popular and higher volume exchanges because these are the platforms to which newer traders will be exposed. These exchanges are recommended to use because they are the industry standard and they inspire the most confidence.
Owned and operated by iFinex Inc, the cryptocurrency trading platform Bitfinex was the largest Bitcoin exchange on the planet until late 2017. Headquartered in Hong Kong and based in the US Virgin Island, Bitfinex was one of the first exchanges to offer leveraged trading (“Margin trading allows a trader to open a position with leverage. For example — we opened a margin position with 2X leverage. Our base assets had increased by 10%. Our position yielded 20% because of the 2X leverage. Standard trades are traded with leverage of 1:1”) and also pioneered the use of the somewhat controversial, so-called “stable coin” Tether (USDT).
Binance is an international multi-language cryptocurrency exchange that rose from the mid-rank of cryptocurrency exchanges to become the market dominating behemoth we see today. At the height of the late 2017/early 2018 bull run, Binance was adding around 2 million new users per week! The exchange had to temporarily disallow new registrations because its servers simply could not keep up with that volume of business. After the temporary ban on new users was lifted the exchange added 240,000 new accounts within two hours.
Have you ever thought whats the role of the cypto exchanges? The answer is simple! There are several different types of exchanges that cater to different needs within the ecosystem, but their functions can be described by one or more of the following: To allow users to convert fiat currency into cryptocurrency. To trade BTC or ETH for alt coins. To facilitate the setting of prices for all crypto assets through an auction market mechanism. Simply put, you can either mine cryptocurrencies or purchase them, and seeing as the mining process requires the purchase of expensive mining equipment, Cryptocurrency exchanges can be loosely grouped into one of the 3 following exchange types, each with a slightly different role or combination of roles.
Have you ever thought about what are the types of Crypto exchanges?
- Traditional Cryptocurrency Exchange: These are the type that most closely mimic traditional stock exchanges where buyers and sellers trade at the current market price of whichever asset they want, with the exchange acting as the intermediary and charging a small fee for facilitating the trade. Kraken and GDAX are examples of this kind of cryptocurrency exchange. Fully peer-to-peer exchanges that operate without a middleman include EtherDelta, and IDEX, which are also examples of decentralized exchanges.
- Cryptocurrency Brokers: These are website or app based exchanges that act like a Travelex or other bureau-de-change. They allow customers to buy or sell crypto assets at a price set by the broker (usually market price plus a small premium). Coinbase is an example of this kind of exchange.
- Direct Trading Platform: These platforms offer direct peer-to-peer trading between buyers and sellers, but don’t use an exchange platform in doing so. These types of exchanges do not use a set market rate; rather, sellers set their own rates. This is a highly risky form of trading, from which new users should shy away.
To understand how an exchange functions we need only look as far as a traditional stock exchange. Most all the features of a cryptocurrency exchange are analogous to features of trading on a traditional stock exchange. In the simplest terms, the exchanges fulfil their role as the main marketplace for crypto assets of all kinds by catering to buyers or sellers. These are some definitions for the basic functions and features to know: Market Orders: Orders that are executed instantly at the current market price. Limit Order: This is an order that will only be executed if and when the price has risen to or dropped to that price specified by the trader and is also within the specified period of time. Transaction fees: Exchanges will charge transactions fees, usually levied on both the buyer and the seller, but sometimes only the seller is charged a fee. Fees vary on different exchanges though the norm is usually below 0.75%. Transfer charges: The exchange is in effect acting as a sort of escrow agent, to ensure there is no foul play, so it might also charge a small fee when you want to withdraw cryptocurrency to your own wallet.
Regulatory Environment and Evolution
Cryptocurrency has come a long way since the closing down of the Silk Road darknet market. The idea of crypto currency being primarily for criminals, has largely been seen as totally inaccurate and outdated. In this section we focus on the developing regulations surrounding the cryptocurrency asset class by region, and we also look at what the future may hold.
The United States of America
A coherent uniform approach at Federal or State level has yet to be implemented in the United States. The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network published guidelines as early as 2013 suggesting that BTC and other cryptos may fall under the label of “money transmitters” and thus would be required to take part in the same Anti-money Laundering (AML) and Know your Client (KYC) procedures as other money service businesses. At the state level, Texas applies its existing finance laws. And New York has instituted an entirely new licensing system.
The European Union
The EU’s approach to cryptocurrency has generally been far more accommodating overall than the United States, partly due to the adaptable nature of pre-existing laws governing electronic money that predated the creation of Bitcoin. As with the USA, the EU’s main fear is money laundering and criminality. The European Central Bank (ECB) categorized BTC as a “convertible decentralized currency” and advised all central banks in the EU to refrain from trading any cryptocurrencies until the proper regulatory framework was put in place. A task force was then set up by the European Parliament in order to prevent and investigate any potential money laundering that was making use of the new technology.
Likely future regulations for cryptocurrency traders within the European Union and North America will probably consist of the following proposals: The initiation of full KYC procedures so that users cannot remain fully anonymous, in order to prevent tax evasion and curtail money laundering. Caps on payments that can be made in cryptocurrency, similar to caps on traditional cash transactions. A set of rules governing tax obligations regarding cryptocurrencies Regulation by the ECB of any companies that offer exchanges between cryptocurrencies and fiat currencies It is less likely for other countries to follow the Chinese approach and completely ban certain aspects of cryptocurrency trading. It is widely considered more progressive and wiser to allow the technology to grow within a balanced accommodative regulatory framework that takes all interests and factors into consideration. It is probable that the most severe form of regulation will be the formation of new governmental bodies specifically to form laws and exercise regulatory control over the cryptocurrency space. But perhaps that is easier said than done. It may, in certain cases, be incredibly difficult to implement particular regulations due to the anonymous and decentralized nature of crypto.
Behavior of Cryptocurrency Investors by Demographic
Due to the fact that cryptocurrency has its roots firmly planted in the cryptography community, the vast majority of early adopters are representative of that group. In this section we cover the basic structure of the cryptocurrency market cycle and the makeup of the community at large, as well as the reasons behind different trading decisions.
The Cryptocurrency Market Cycle
Bitcoin leads the bull rally. FOMO (Fear of missing out) occurs, the price surge is a constant topic of mainstream news, business programs cover the story, and social media is abuzz with cryptocurrency chatter. Bitcoin reaches new All Timehigh (ATH) Market euphoria is fueled with even more hype and the cycle is in full force. There is a constant stream of news articles and commentary on the meteoric, seemingly unstoppable rise of Bitcoin. Bitcoin’s price “stabilizes”, In the 2017 bull run this was at or around $14,000. A number of solid, large market cap altcoins rise along with Bitcoin; ETH & LTC leading the altcoins at this time. FOMO comes into play, as the new ATH in market cap is reached by pumping of a huge number of alt coins.
Top altcoins “somewhat” stabilize, after reaching new all-time highs. The frenzy continues with crypto success stories, notable figures and famous people in the news. A majority of lesser known cryptocurrencies follow along on the upward momentum. Newcomers are drawn deeper into crypto and sign up for exchanges other than the main entry points like Coinbase and Kraken. In 2017 this saw Binance inundated with new registrations. Some of the cheapest coins are subject to massive pumping, such as Tron TRX which saw a rise in market cap from $150 million at the start of December 2017 to a peak of $16 billion! At this stage, even dead coins or known scams will get pumped. The price of the majority of cryptocurrencies stabilize, and some begin to retract. When the hype is subsiding after a huge crypto bull run, it is a massive sell signal. Traditional investors will begin to give interviews about how people need to be careful putting money into such a highly volatile asset class. Massive violent correction begins and the market starts to collapse. BTC begins to fall consistently on a daily basis, wiping out the insane gains of many medium to small cap cryptos with it. Panic selling sweeps through the market. Depression sets in, both in the markets, and in the minds of individual investors who failed to take profits, or heed the signs of imminent collapse. The price stagnation can last for months, or even years.
The Influence of Age upon Trading
Did you know? Cryptocurrencies have been called “stocks for millennials” According to a survey conducted by the Global Blockchain Business Council, only 5% of the American public own any bitcoin, but of those that do, an overwhelming majority of 71% are men, 58% of them are between the ages of 18 and 35, and over half of them are minorities. The same survey gauged public attitude toward the high risk/high return nature of cryptocurrency, in comparison to more secure guaranteed small percentage gains offered by government bonds or stocks, and found that 30% would rather invest $1,000 in crypto. Over 42% of millennials were aware of cryptocurrencies as opposed to only 15% of those ages 65 and over. In George M. Korniotis and Alok Kumar’s study into the effects of aging on portfolio management and the quality of decisions made by older investors, they found “that older and experienced investors are more likely to follow “rules of thumb” that reflect greater investment knowledge. However, older investors are less effective in applying their investment knowledge and exhibit worse investment skill, especially if they are less educated and earn lower income.”
Geographic Influence upon Trading
One of the main drivers of the apparent seasonal ebb and flow of cryptocurrency prices is the tax situation in the various territories that have the highest concentrations of cryptocurrency holders. Every year we see an overall market pull back beginning in mid to late January, with a recovery beginning usually after April. This is because “Tax Season” is roughly the same across Europe and the United States, with the deadline for Income tax returns being April 15th in the United States, and the tax year officially ending the UK on the 6th of April. All capital gains must be declared before the window closes or an American trader will face the powerful and long arm of the IRS with the consequent legal proceedings and possible jail time. Capital gains taxes around the world vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction but there are often incentives for cryptocurrency holders to refrain from trading for over a year to qualify their profits as long term gain when they finally sell. In the US and Australia, for example, capital gains are reduced if you bought cryptocurrency for investment purposes and held it for over a year. In Germany if crypto assets are held for over a year then the gains derived from their sale are not taxed. Advantages like this apply to individual tax returns, on a case by case basis, and it is up to the investor to keep up to date with the tax codes of the territory in which they reside.
2013 Bull run vs 2017 Bull run price Analysis
In late 2016 cryptocurrency traders were faced with the task of distinguishing between the beginnings of a genuine bull run and what might colorfully be called a “dead cat bounce” (in traditional market terminology). Stagnation had gripped the market since the pull-back of early 2014. The meteoric rise of Bitcoin’s price in 2013 peaked with a price of $1,100 in November 2013, after a year of fantastic news on the adoption front with both Microsoft and PayPal offering BTC payment options. It is easy to look at a line going up on a chart and speak after the fact, but at the time, it is exceeding difficult to say whether the cat is actually climbing up the wall, or just bouncing off the ground. Here, we will discuss the factors that gave savvy investors clues as to why the 2017 bull run was going to outstrip the 2013 rally. Hopefully this will help give insight into how to differentiate between the signs of a small price increase and the start of a full scale bull run. Most importantly, Volume was far higher in 2017. As we can see in the graphic below, the 2017 volume far exceeds the volume of BTC trading during the 2013 price increase. The stranglehold MtGox held on trading made a huge bull run very difficult and unlikely.
Fraud & Immoral Activity in the Private Market
Ponzi Schemes Cryptocurrency Ponzi schemes will be covered in greater detail in Lesson 7, but we need to get a quick overview of the main features of Ponzi schemes and how to spot them at this point in our discussion. Here are some key indicators of a Ponzi scheme, both in cryptocurrencies and traditional investments: A guaranteed promise of high returns with little risk. Consistentflow of returns regardless of market conditions. Investments that have not been registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Investment strategies that are a secret, or described as too complex. Clients not allowed to view official paperwork for their investment. Clients have difficulties trying to get their money back. The initial members of the scheme, most likely unbeknownst to the later investors, are paid their “dividends” or “profits” with new investor cash. The most famous modern-day example of a Ponzi scheme in the traditional world, is Bernie Madoff’s $100 billion fraudulent enterprise, officially titled Bernard L. Madoff Investment Securities LLC. And in the crypto world, BitConnect is the most infamous case of an entirely fraudulent project which boasted a market cap of $2 billion at its peak.
What are the Exchange Hacks?
The history of cryptocurrency is littered with examples of hacked exchanges, some of them so severe that the operation had to be wound up forever. As we have already discussed, incredibly tech savvy and intelligent computer hackers led by Alexander Vinnik stole 850000 BTC from the MtGox exchange over a period from 2012–2014 resulting in the collapse of the exchange and a near-crippling hammer blow to the emerging asset class that is still being felt to this day. The BitGrail exchange suffered a similar style of attack in late 2017 and early 2018, in which Nano (XRB) was stolen that was at one point was worth almost $195 million. Even Bitfinex, one of the most famous and prestigious exchanges, has suffered a hack in 2016 where $72 million worth of BTC was stolen directly from customer accounts.
Hardware Wallet Scam Case Study
In late 2017, an unfortunate character on Reddit, going by the name of “moody rocket” relayed his story of an intricate scam in which his newly acquired hardware wallet was compromised, and his $34,000 life savings were stolen. He bought a second hand Nano ledger into which the scammers own recover seed had already been inserted. He began using the ledger without knowing that the default seed being used was not a randomly assigned seed. After a few weeks the scammer struck, and withdrew all the poor HODLer’s XRP, Dash and Litecoin into their own wallet (likely through a few intermediary wallets to lessen the very slim chances of being identified).
Hardware Wallet Scam Case Study Social Media Fraud
Many gullible and hapless twitter users have fallen victim to the recent phenomenon of scammers using a combination of convincing fake celebrity twitter profiles and numerous amounts of bots to swindle them of ETH or BTC. The scammers would set up a profile with a near identical handle to a famous figure in the tech sphere, such as Vitalik Buterin or Elon Musk. And then in the tweet, immediately following a genuine message, follow up with a variation of “Bonus give away for the next 100 lucky people, send me 0.1 ETH and I will send you 1 ETH back”, followed by the scammers ether wallet address. The next 20 or so responses will be so-called sockpuppet bots, thanking the fake account for their generosity. Thus, the pot is baited and the scammers can expect to receive potentially hundreds of donations of 0.1 Ether into their wallet. Many twitter users with a large follower base such as Vitalik Buterin have taken to adding “Not giving away ETH” to their username to save careless users from being scammed.
It also must be recognized that market manipulation is taking place in cryptocurrency. For those with the financial means i.e. whales, there are many ways in which to control the market in a totally immoral and underhanded way for your own profit. It is especially easy to manipulate cryptos that have a very low trading volume. The manipulator places large buy orders or sell walls to discourage price action in one way or the other. Insider trading is also a significant problem in cryptocurrency, as we saw with the example of blatant insider trading when Bitcoin Cash was listed on Coinbase.
Examples of ICO Fraudulent Company Behavior
In the past 2 years an astronomical amount of money has been lost in fraudulent Initial Coin Offerings. The utmost care and attention must be employed before you invest. We will cover this area in greater detail with a whole lesson devoted to the topic. However, at this point, it is useful to look at the main instances of ICO fraud. Among recent instances of fraudulent ICOs resulting in exit scams, 2 of the most infamous are the Benebit and PlexCoin ICOs which raised $4 million for the former and $15 million for the latter. Perhaps the most brazen and damaging ICO scam of all time was the Vietnamese Pincoin ICO operation, where $660million was raised from 32,000 investors before the scammer disappeared with the funds. In case of smaller ICO “exit scamming” there is usually zero chance of the scammers being found. Investors must just take the hit. We will cover these as well as others in Lesson 7 “Scam Projects”.
Signposts of Fraudulent Actors
The following factors are considered red flags when investigating a certain project or ICO, and all of them should be considered when deciding whether or not you want to invest. Whitepaper is a buzzword Salad: If the whitepaper is nothing more than a collection of buzzwords with little clarity of purpose and not much discussion of the tech involved, it is overwhelmingly likely you are reading a scam whitepaper.
Signposts of Fraudulent Actors §2
No Code Repository: With the vast majority of cryptocurrency projects employing open source code, your due diligence investigation should start at GitHub or Sourceforge. If the project has no entries, or nothing but cloned code, you should avoid it at all costs. Anonymous Team: If the team members are hard to find, or if you see they are exaggerating or lying about their experience, you should steer clear. And do not forget, in addition to taking proper precautions when investing in ICOs, you must always make sure that you are visiting authentic web pages, especially for web wallets. If, for example, you are on a spoof MyEtherWallet web page you could divulge your private key without realizing it and have your entire portfolio of Ether and ERC-20 tokens cleaned out.
Methods to Avoid falling Victim
Avoiding scammers and the traps they set for you is all about asking yourself the right questions, starting with: Is there a need for a Blockchain solution for the particular problem that a particular ICO is attempting to solve? The existing solution may be less costly, less time consuming, and more effective than the proposals of a team attempting to fill up their soft cap in an ICO. The following quote from Mihai Ivascu, the CEO of Modex, should be kept in mind every time you are grading an ICO’s chances of success: “I’m pretty sure that 95% of ICOswill not last, and many will go bankrupt. ….. not everything needs to be decentralized and put on an open source ledger.”
Methods to Avoid falling Victim §2 Do I Trust These People with My Money, or Not?
If you continue to feel uneasy about investing in the project, more due diligence is needed. The developers must be qualified and competent enough to complete the objectives that they have set out in the whitepaper.
Is this too good to be true?
All victims of the well-known social media scams using fake profiles of Vitalik Buterin, or Bitconnect investors for that matter, should have asked themselves this simple question, and their investment would have been saved. In the case of Bitconnect, huge guaranteed gains proportional to the amount of people you can get to sign up was a blatant pyramid scheme, obviously too good to be true. The same goes for Fake Vitalik’s offer of 1 ether in exchange for 0.1 ETH.
Selling Cryptocurrencies, Several reasons for selling with the appropriate actions to take:
If you are selling to buy into an ICO, or maybe believe Ether is a safer currency to hold for a certain period of time, it is likely you will want to make use of the Ether pair and receive Ether in return. Obviously if the ICO is on the NEO or WANchain blockchain for example, you will use the appropriate pair. -Trading to buy into another promising project that is listing on the exchange on which you are selling (or you think the exchange will experience a large amount of volume and become a larger exchange), you may want to trade your cryptocurrency for that exchange token. -If you believe that BTC stands a good chance of experiencing a bull run then using the BTC trading pair is the suitable choice. -If you believe that the market is about to experience a correction but you do not want to take your gains out of the market yet, selling for Tether or “tethering up” is the best play. This allows you to keep your locked-in profits on the exchange, unaffected by the price movements in the cryptocurrency markets,so that you can buy back in at the most profitable moment. -If you wish to “cash out” i.e. sell your cryptocurrency for fiat currency and have those funds in your bank account, the best pair to use is ETH or BTC because you will likely have to transfer to an exchange like Kraken or Coinbase to convert them into fiat. If the exchange offers Litecoin or Bitcoin Cash pairs it could be a good idea to use these for their fast transaction time and low fees.
Knowing when and how to sell, as well as strategies to inflate the value of your trade before sale, are important skills as a trader of any product or financial instrument. If you are satisfied that the sale itself of the particular amount of a token or coin you are trading away is the right one, then you must decide at what price you are going to sell. Exchanges exercise their own discretion as to which trading “pairs” they will offer, but the most common ones are BTC, ETH, BNB for Binance, BIX for Bibox etc., and sometimes Tether (USDT) or NEO. As a trader, you decide which particular cryptocurrency to exchange depending on your reason for making that specific trade at that time.
Methods of Sale
Market sell/Limit sell on exchange: A limit sell is an order placed on an exchange to sell as soon as (also specifically only if and when) the price you specified has been hit within the time limit you select. A market order executes the sale immediately at the best possible price offered by the market at that exact time. OTC (or Over the Counter) selling refers to sale of securities or cryptocurrencies in any method without using an exchange to intermediate the trade and set the price. The most common way of conducting sales in this manner is through LocalBitcoins.com. This method of cryptocurrency selling is far riskier than using an exchange, for obvious reasons.
The influence and value of your Trade
There are a number of strategies you can use to appreciate the value of your trade and thus increase the Bitcoin or Ether value of your portfolio. It is important to disassociate yourself from the dollar value of your portfolio early on in your cryptocurrency trading career simply because the crypto market is so volatile you will end up pulling your hair out in frustration following the real dollar money value of your holdings. Once your funds have been converted into BTC and ETH they are completely in the crypto sphere. (Some crypto investors find it more appropriate to monitor the value of their portfolio in satoshi or gwei.) Certainly not limited to, but especially good for beginners, the most reliable way to increase your trading profits, and thus the overall value and health of your portfolio, is to buy into promising projects, hold them for 6 months to a year, and then reevaluate. This is called Long term holding and is the tactic that served Bitcoin HODLers quite well, from 2013 to the present day. Obviously, if something comes to light about the project that indicates a lengthy set back is likely, it is often better to cut your losses and sell. You are better off starting over and researching other projects. Also, you should set initial Price Points at which you first take out your original investment, and then later, at which you take out all your profits and exit the project. That should be after you believe the potential for growth has been exhausted for that particular project.
Another method of increasing the value of your trades is ICO flipping. This is the exact opposite of long term holding. This is a technique in which you aim for fast profits taking advantage of initial enthusiasm in the market that may double or triple the value of ICO projects when they first come to market. This method requires some experience using smaller exchanges like IDEX, on which project tokens can be bought and sold before listing on mainstream exchanges. “Tethering up” means to exchange tokens or coins for the USDT stable coin, the value of which is tethered to the US Dollar. If you learn, or know how to use, technical analysis, it is possible to predict when a market retreatment is likely by looking at the price movements of BTC. If you decide a market pull back is likely, you can tether up and maintain the dollar value of your portfolio in tether while other tokens and coins decrease in value. The you wait for an opportune moment to reenter the market.
Market Behavior in Different Time Periods
The main descriptors used for overall market sentiment are “Bull Market” and “Bear Market”. The former describes a market where people are buying on optimism. The latter describes a market where people are selling on pessimism. Fun (or maybe not) fact: The California grizzly bear was brought to extinction by the love of bear baiting as a sport in the mid 1800s. Bears were highly sought after for their intrinsic fighting qualities, and were forced into fighting bulls as Sunday morning entertainment for Californians. What has this got to do with trading and financial markets? The downward swipe of the bear’s paws gives a “Bear market” its name and the upward thrust of a Bull’s horns give the “Bull Market” its name. Most unfortunately for traders, the bear won over 80% of the bouts. During a Bull market, optimism can sometimes grow to be seemingly boundless, volume is rising, and prices are ascending. It can be a good idea to sell or rebalance your portfolio at such a time, especially if you have a particularly large position in one holding or another. This is especially applicable if you need to sell a large amount of a relatively low-volume holding, because you can then do so without dragging the price down by the large size of your own sell order.
Learn more on common behavioral patterns observed so far in the cryptocurrency space for different coins and ICO tokens.
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Hey all, I’ve seen a few posts on here asking about using Silk Road to purchase trees. I’m not an expert, but I have used it successfully a few times now, so I figured I’d write a guide to help anyone out. 1. Getting on Silk Road.
Silk Road exists on what is commonly referred to as the ‘Hidden internet’, or ‘Deep Web’; Websites on the hidden internet are not indexed and thus not accessible by regular search engines or DNS lookups. You can do more research on this if you want - to be perfectly honest, I don’t understand it entirely - but you don’t need to.
To access Silk Road and the rest of the Hidden Internet, you need to download a piece of Software, called Tor. This software allows you access hidden websites via a regular browser window. Just head to Tor’s Website
and click the download. Once the files are downloaded, unzip and click Start Tor.
To head to Silk Road, enter the following address silkroadvb5piz3r.onion
You’ll need to make an account, this is pretty straight forward. (Make sure you remember your pin. You don’t need it when logging in, but you do need it when confirming transactions. Also, your pin doesn’t actually have to be a ‘pin’, mine is just another regular password)
Note: Due to the nature of the Onion network/service, it’s quite slow. And a busy site like Silk Road can be even slower. So, it may be that you have trouble connecting. If it doesn’t work, hit refresh a couple of times, and then just try again later. I usually have better luck in the morning 9pm-12pm and late evening 10pm-4am 2. Bitcoin.
Bitcoin is a decentralised peer 2 peer based currency. Essentially, it’s an untraceable and anonymous currency. Purchasing Bitcoin can be a little tricky, there are a number of ways to do it.
There are exchanges such as MTgox and Intersango, and many direct Bitcoin purchasing sites such as Bitstamp, and BitInstant. The problem with many of these sites is they operate outside of the UK, and as such getting money into them can be tricky. They tend not to accept debit credit cards, and often require bank transfers via IBAN. However, banks will often charge you a fee for using IBAN (I know Natwest charges £10).
These websites will allow you to deposit money into your account, and then place orders to convert that money into Bitcoin.
Other easier websites are Virwox
, and Block Chain
, you first need to convert currency into Linden Dollars (SLL) (a currency used in the game Second Life) then into Bitcoins. However, Virwox does not allow for fractions of bitcoins, which means you can easily end up being just shy of a full bitcoin and having ‘worthless’ SLL. One nice thing about Virwox is that they accept UKash vouchers. So if you want no trace of your purchases, you can go buy UKash vouchers at any Paypoint and then deposit those. Block Chain
used to only be depositable via Barclay’s Pingit, but has since opened up regular bank transfers, I found this worked really well the last time I used it, so I’d recommend it.
You can also buy bitcoins in person by searching on Local bitcoin. In addition, there are also people selling Bitcoins on Ebay, but very overpriced, so I wouldn’t recommend that.
There are a tonne of places to buy bitcoin, some accept cash/cheques in the mail as well. You can always find more by googling. 3. The purchasing process.
You need to send your purchased Bitcoins to your SR account, you can find your bitcoin address under ‘Account’ at the top of the screen. It can take a few hours for the transfer to take place.
Once in your account, you’re ready to purchase, simply find whatever it is you wish to buy, click add to cart, and then head to the checkout. Select a postage method for your items and click go to confirm the postage.
Now, you need to input your address and your pin.
Now, you might have heard of PGP encryption by this point, it’s a form of public/private key encryption used on SR to protect the addresses of its users.
For this, I’m just going to steal mr_kyitty’s guide from this thread.
- Get gpg4win, install, and open 'GPA'
- Now you need to make your own key. Go to Keys>New Key, and follow the prompts. Use a fake name/e-mail. Before entering a passcode, write it out (the longer the passcode, the better, and you have to enter it every time you encrypt something). Once that's done, you have your own key.
- Import the seller key from the seller page. To do this, copy the public key from the page, paste it into a blank notepad file, and save the file. Then click 'Import' in GPA and load that file. You now have that seller's public key.
- To encrypt your address, open the clipboard in GPA and type in your address. Click encrypt, select the seller's public key, and in the lower box, check "sign" and select your own key. Then you will be prompted to enter your passcode. Once complete, copy the block from the clipboard and paste it into the address box on the shopping cart page.
I’d like to add, that you don’t need to ‘sign’ the encryption. What this does is allows the seller to verify that you are the actual sender of the message. However, I’d argue this isn’t entirely necessary, as it will also require you to post your public key somewhere.
Click to confirm the transaction, and that’s the order placed.
It will now show up under your ‘orders’ section. You’ll notice an option to ‘finalize’.
Silk Road uses escrow, i.e. they hold your money when you place an order, and when the order is confirmed to have gone through (after x days) the money will be sent to the vendor. You can Finalise early, by clicking the finalise button and sending them their payment. It’s common courtesy to do this once your item has arrived. If an issue arises, you can click resolve, and attempt to claim a refund/resolve the issue. I don’t have any experience with this so I’d recommend you search /silkroad
for advice if you need assistance on resolving a matter.
Some vendors might ask you to finalise early before they will send your order. Now, this is actually against Silk Road policy, but its common for vendors to ask for this from first time buyers. Personally, I would say just don’t do it. You never know what’s going to happen. But generally speaking, a vendor's reputation is probably worth more than your particular order, so the risk of being 'ripped off' is low.
Still, I wouldn't recommend it. 4. Additional Comments Do I recommend it for weed?
I started using SR Last year after I moved back home from Uni, because I no longer had a dealer. Personally, if I had a choice, I would choose to buy from a dealer every time. SR is a lot of hassle, so I wouldn’t recommend it for your general Eighth or quarter, unless you have no other connection (as is unfortunately the situation for me).
However, there are a variety of strains and products available, ranging from hashes to oils to edibles, so some of you might like to have those options.
In terms of price, I’d say it’s fair. A lot of Weed vendors will have a standard strain that they’ll sell for a (roughly) standard £20/eighth. You will generally be spending a little more given the nature of the process. Is it risky?
In terms of general legal risk, you can't control what people send to you. If there's no record of you having bought it (Which there isn't, buying bitcoins is not a crime) then you should be fine. In terms of 'Will I get scammed risk' - it's just like ebay, people value their reputation. Buy from high repped vendors, and you should be fine.
Anyway, that’s all folks, I hope you’ve found this helpful. If you have any questions, leave a comment, and I’ll do my best to help you out.
Also, if any other more experienced SR users have noticed any mistakes or things I should alter in this guide, please leave a comment and let me know, and I’ll make the necessary amendments.
And here are some other great subreddits which you may also find useful. /SilkRoad
- For everything Silk Road. /Bitcoin
- For everything Bitcoin. /onions
- For everything hidden internet.
Craig Steven Wright
Australian software enthusiast Craig Steven Wright
, also known as CSW, born in October of 1970
, is notable for making an unsubstantiated claim to be Satoshi Nakamoto in May of 2016.
It is known that Craig Wright is definitely a software enthusiast. He volunteered as an unpaid computer science lecturer at Charles Sturt University and paid to complete various technical certification tests: a GIAC certification in Compliance and Audits, a GSE Malware certification, and a GSECompliance certification.
Craig has claimed to have a doctorate in computer science, although when contacted Charles Sturt University made a statement to the contrary
. CSU further went on to contradict his characterization of his employment there, clarifying that the position he had previously referred to was an unpaid volunteer role.
Craig has often referred to himself as a doctor in software contexts, but his only doctorate claim that is not questioned is that of a theological doctorate with a thesis relating to creationism
Over the years Craig Wright has been mentioned in relationship to various marginal activities. Craig helped create a casino in 1999
. In 2004 he was convicted of contempt of court and sentenced to 28 days in jail
. Craig maintained his innocence, but the charges were held up on two separate appeals.
In recent years Craig has been mentioned in relation to a questionable deal in which his company claimed $54 million in tax rebates from the Australian government
that were earmarked to reward tech industry investment in Australia. The circumstances around that substantial rebate have been called into question, by the Australian authorities and others. There remains a distinct lack of information as to whether the rebates were warranted.
Craig Wright claimed that his claimed government monies were to be used in relation to a Bitcoin related supercomputer project his company Cloudcroft
was creating, in partnership with the well known computing firm SGI. His company circulated a signed letter on SGI letterhead declaring the partnership. But when asked to confirm the partnership directly, the SGI Chief Operating Officer denied any involvement
with the project. He went further, stating that SGI had never even had any contact with Cloudcroft. No proof of the Cloudcroft supercomputer's existence was ever published.
In December of 2015, Craig Wright's house was raided
by the Sydney police in a tax investigation relating to tax rebates. Part of the claims of this tax rebate related to Bitcoin: it was claimed by Craig that he had a large amount of Bitcoin in the makeup of his investments, but no proof of these assertions was ever made available.
Craig was in fact listed as a MTGox customer on leaked customer reports published in 2014
, but only purchasing Bitcoin and after a large media blitz where buying Bitcoin was becoming increasingly well-known. By the leak's numbers Craig spent about five thousand dollars to acquire fifty coins, losing fifteen to the MTGox collapse. This raised a question, why would someone holding over a million bitcoins worth hundreds of millions of dollars spend thousands of dollars over a long stretch of time to buy fifty more?
In December of 2015, around the same time as the heated tax investigation into the veracity of Craig's Bitcoin investment and holding claims, unsourced rumors started to suggest that Craig is Satoshi. If he were Satoshi, it would have given great credence to his tax related claims of large Bitcoin related holdings and investment. Some of these rumors find their way into public stories published by news outlets, but no credible evidence is found, and some evidence that is produced seems to have been fabricated
to mislead people into misinterpretation.
It was revealed by Andrew O'Hagan in the London Review of Books that Craig had been working
with some business associates on the assumption of his secret Satoshi identity. Craig privately claimed, but never showed proof, to many people that he was Satoshi, and had arranged a high stakes business relationship to create a large series of Bitcoin related patents in a very large multimillion dollar deal. As an advance on the anticipated profits, Craig was offered large sums of money, which he spent lavishly on ostentatious cars and clothing, to the chagrin of his business partners.
After 2015, the story died down due to the disproven evidence and dead-end leads. Craig and his partners, with a professional PR company, began to contact news outlets about publishing new evidence to his Satoshi identity, promising them a valuable story on very specific terms. Craig demanded that all involved sign non disclosure agreements
and then go to meet him in a rented conference room
to validate his claim. He demanded that only a computer produced by his assistant
is used to cryptographically sign his proof, a computer that the verifiers are not allowed to keep for an inspection. Craig further demanded that he be allowed to add a modifier of his initials to a signing statement. The signing tool used was the Electrum Bitcoin wallet, but Electrum developers reported
no UK IP downloaded the verifying software signature file that would confirm the software's legitimacy.
The entire setup of these in person proof sessions was created in a suspect way, leading experts to believe that an in-person proof could easily have been stage managed
and faked. The reason stated for the careful controls was to avoid early release of the proof, however this could have been done in a remote way using a method of cryptography where Gavin could have been able to receive a personal proof of a signature that he would still be unable to use to publicly prove to the world was real. It's possible that Gavin was unaware of this cryptographic method, but then the lack of knowledge would imply that Craig and everyone involved in the proving sessions were not very qualified in cryptography related subjects. Gavin has previously stated
that he is not a cryptography expert.
As part of his proof, Craig also reintroduced some of the fabricated evidence that surfaced during the December rumors. To counter the critics who pointed out the uselessness of the evidence, he produced and quoted verbatim a supposedly third party report
substantiating the evidence and personally and separately attacking the people, mainly Greg Maxwell, who called into question the veracity of the evidence. The report in question was sourced from a paid technical evidence consulting agency located in the same city as Craig. This agency, with no known connection or published history with Bitcoin, addressed the unrelated Bitcoin Core project quite specifically and negatively, with views consistent with Craig's previously stated views. The writing style of the report, Craig's ability to repeat it verbatim, and the geological proximity and nature of the firm publishing the report suggested his close involvement with its creation. Although he printed and passed around the report to reporters, Craig did not disclose any relationship with the formation of the report.
In May of 2016 Craig Wright lifted the embargo on the story and declared himself to be Satoshi, with a lengthy blog post about how he could cryptographically sign a statement to prove he is Satoshi. At the top of his post he added a statement to sign stating that he is Satoshi, encoded in an unreadable machine format, as would be fed into the signing process he then went on to describe. At the end of the post describing how to derive a cryptographic signature from a statement, he quoted a cryptographic signature which could be run through the described signature verification to show that it is Satoshi's signature. However the signature at the end of the post did not sign the statement at the beginning of the post. Instead it was a well known and completely unrelated old signature from Satoshi. This fact left unstated by Craig was soon discovered by fact-checkers who referenced the signature against Satoshi's previously known signatures.
Given the missing evidence and suspicious circumstances and history, his claim was widely called a scam
, although Jon Matonis
and Gavin Andresen
maintained their positions, despite the evidence of malfeasance. Gavin did express surprise at the lack of public evidence, implying that he was previously led to believe that the evidence would be public and inspectable beyond the confines of the fixed private demonstration. Even so, when pressed Gavin demurred from backing off his claim. Gavin also does not mention any separate evidence that he said earlier he would demand, such as private correspondence that only he and Satoshi would have been privy to.
One point of skepticism mentioned by evaluators of Craig Wright's published works is that there are no commonalities found between his writing style and that of Satoshi Nakamoto's published works. Even trivial style choices like choosing double spaces after every period, a signature of Satoshi's, was absent from Craig Wright's writings. Suspiciously, after this point was widely mentioned, Craig Wright started going out of his way to add multiple spaces after his periods in his HTML blog posts. HTML by default does not visually display redundant white-space, but Craig added special default override code
to force its display.
After the ensuing the adverse reactions to his claim, Craig Wright contacted the press and put out statements to the effect that he would produce compelling public evidence
, as previously was tacitly promised. He claimed to have evidence that would put to rest any remaining doubt with an extraordinary new proof. He asks Gavin and BBC reporters to send funds to Satoshi's known addresses, so that he can send it back. However as the time ticks down on his promise, he backs out
, with a nonsensical and wandering statement about being worried to provide actual proof.
Gavin and the BBC's money was never returned to them.
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